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Thread: Dominican History with the Evidence

  1. #11
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    Default Population, Slavery, etc in Spanish Santo Domingo (II of IV)

    Quote Originally Posted by Moreau de Saint-Mery
    ...the political constitution of the colony admits of no distinction between the civil rights of a white inhabitant and those of a freed person.
    Quote Originally Posted by Moreau de Saint-Mery
    With respect to the priesthood, people of color are admitted into it without difficulty, according to the principles of equality, which form the basis of the Christian religion...
    Quote Originally Posted by Moreau de Saint-Mery
    From the removal of this prejudice with regard to color, necessarily arises lenity to the slaves. They are usually fed as well as their masters and treated with a mildness unknown in the colonies of other nations.
    Quote Originally Posted by Moreau de Saint-Mery
    ...as long as the negroes remain so few in number, and are spread over such an immense surface of country, there can never be but handful here and there; and it being impossible in such a state to subject them to an exact discipline, which is useful in great manufactures and habitations only, their treatment will ever be analogous to the situation of their masters, to whom they will be rather companions than slaves.
    Quote Originally Posted by Moreau de Saint-Mery
    The Spanish colonial laws subject the maroon negroes to the punishment of whipping and being ironed, the negro cannot absent himself without a written permission from his master, one who dares strike a white person is liable to be put to death, and they are all forbidden to carry arms. But, as I have already observed, these laws are, as to these points, null at Saint-Domingo...

    1800s

    In 1810 William Walton, a British, published his two volumes Present State of the Spanish Colonies in which the first volume is devoted almost entirely to Spanish Santo Domingo.

    Quote Originally Posted by William Walton
    The population of the Spanish division of Hispanola at present amounts to about 104,000 persons of all ages, a number larger than generally supposed by those who visit the island, in consequence of its being scattered over such an extent of territory.
    Quote Originally Posted by William Walton
    ...for it may be confidently asserted that the Spanish slaves in general are the most orderly in the West Indies, and though surrounded with incentives to revolt, they have uniformly adhered to their masters.
    Quote Originally Posted by William Walton
    A considerable impediment to the progress of culture in Spanish possessions, is the great number of feast days that interfere with the labours of the field, and the lax regimen by which working slaves are governed.
    Quote Originally Posted by William Walton
    In Spanish American settlements the masters are humane, frequently in the extreme, and the indulgences which negroes enjoy, are not altogether congenial to their characters and habits.
    Quote Originally Posted by William Walton
    ...the Spaniards appear to have made very imperfect regulations on this head [legal treatment of slaves]; what exists is an assemblage of exemptions and regulations, in which humanity more than policy has been attended to.

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  3. #12
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    Default Population, Slavery, etc in Spanish Santo Domingo (III of IV)

    Quote Originally Posted by William Walton
    A [Spanish] slave has the right to redemption; and in any dispute with his master, has the privilege of choosing an arbitrator. If he be not contented to live in the servitude of a particular person, by whom he may be ill treated; and can produce sufficient motives, and another purchaser, the law abliges the master to make the transfer...
    Quote Originally Posted by William Walton
    Piety, also, amongst the Spaniards places the emancipation of slaves amongst the most acceptable offerings to the Divinity, and sometimes forming the condition of a testament, deprives a successor of an inheritance.
    Quote Originally Posted by William Walton
    In the Spanish colonies, however, they [freed slaves] become equal citizens of the state; serve in the militias, enjoy the same rights as those born free, with few exceptions, that have more to tincture of punctilious etiquette, than of constitutional privation...
    Quote Originally Posted by William Walton
    ...dispensations from the crown can wipe away even the stains of African blood, and place it on an equal scale of society with perfect whites; and the man who then publicly reproaches them with the traces of their origin, however remote, becomes subject to the prosecution of the law.
    Samuel Hazard, an American, visited the DR and Haiti in 1871 as part of a commission sent by the US government to investigate the conditions of the island and what the people thought of the possibility of the annexation of the Dominican Republic. This is the society he found in the DR during this island-wide tour.

    Quote Originally Posted by Samuel Hazard
    The great majority, especially along the coast, are neither pure black nor pure white; they are mixed in every conceivable degree. In some parts of the interior considerable numbers of the white race are to be found, and generally in the mixed race the white blood predominates.
    Quote Originally Posted by Samuel Hazard
    They seem to be practically destitute of prejudice of class, race, or color. In their intercourse with each other and with strangers, they are courteous in manner, respectful, and polite.

    Smith M. Weed, an American, visited the country in 1894 and in that same year published an article, The Charm of San Domingo, in The New York Times describing the Dominican society.

    Quote Originally Posted by Smith M. Weed
    Yes, I have just returned from a very enjoyable visit to San Domingo, and am filled with pleasant impressions of its beauty, productiveness, and the kind politeness of its people. It has a population of something more than 500,000, two-thirds of whom, I should say, are straight-haired people, while the other third have more or less of the curly hair which is a characteristic of the negro race. All are dark, for the hot climate soon bronzes the residents of Dominica, and the natives, even those with a pure Spanish ancestry, have become dark-complexioned, while those with Indian blood in their veins are naturally so.

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  5. #13
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    Default Population, Slavery, etc in Spanish Santo Domingo (IV of IV)

    1900s

    Otto Schoenrich, an American, descriptions of Dominican society in 1918.

    Quote Originally Posted by Otto Schoenrich
    At the present time the pure negroes are in a minority, constituting probably less than one-fourth the entire population. The great majority of the inhabitants are of mixed Spanish and African blood, their color ranging from black to white. The lighter shades predominate, especially in the Cibao. There is also a sprinkling of pure whites, the majority of whom are to be found in the Cibao region or are foreigners residing in the larger cities.
    Quote Originally Posted by Otto Schoenrich
    ...there have never been political parties based on color and the relations between the races have always been cordial. In company, side by side, mulattoes, blacks and whites have lived, worked, enjoyed themselves and fought their revolutions. There is absolutely no color line. A friend of mine from Virginia received quite a shock the first time he attended a state ball in Santo Domingo and saw an immense negro, as black as coal, a member of Congress, dancing with a girl as white as any of the foreign ladies present. He rushed to the refreshment room and beckoned to a tall mulatto in a dress suit: “I’ll have something to cool off, here waiter—“ He was stopped just in time for he was mistaking the secretary of foreign affairs for a waiter; but after his experience he was afraid of giving his order to anyone else for fear he might be offending some other high official.
    Samuel Guy Inman, an American, in his 1919 Through Santo Domingo and Haiti: A Cruise with the Marines, gives these descriptions of the Dominican society he visited.

    Quote Originally Posted by Samuel Guy Inman
    Racially the people of the Dominican Republic are of Spanish descent, some pure white, others mixed with negro blood, others with an admixture of Indian, and still others carrying the racial inheritance of all three of these races.
    Quote Originally Posted by Samuel Guy Inman
    Haiti retains its uniform blackness to a remarkable extent, but in the Dominican Republic the racial mixture is very complete, and your typical citizen may exhibit the predominant characteristics of either the white, the black or the red men.
    Quote Originally Posted by Samuel Guy Inman
    Along the coast and on the plantations there are many negroes from Turks Island, the Bahamas, Jamaica and the other West Indies; while at Monte Cristi and in other localities there are many native Dominican and Haitian blacks.
    Quote Originally Posted by Samuel Guy Inman
    Socially, commercially and politically there seems to be little color line drawn, for men and women of white and colored skins are seen mingling and conversing freely. Whites and colored intermarry and hold office on an equality.
    Quote Originally Posted by Samuel Guy Inman
    Besides Spanish, the English and French languages are heard to a limited extent. On the Samaná peninsula as much English as Spanish is spoken, and in the coast towns San Pedro de Macorís, Puerto Plata, Monte Cristi and Santo Domingo, it is often heard from the lips of the negroes from the British islands.
    Quote Originally Posted by Samuel Guy Inman
    To understand Santo Domingo, it must be constantly kept in mind that, different from Haiti, it is Spanish-American in historical inheritance, religion, problems, ideals and culture.
    Quote Originally Posted by Samuel Guy Inman
    If Santo Domingo is noted for its backwardness in most respects, it is equally noted wherever the Spanish language is spoken for excellency of literary production.

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    Default The First Coat of Arms in America

    The island of Santo Domingo was not only the place in America with the first cities to receive their coat of arms, but also the island itself got a coat of arms establishing a tradition that would later be applied to the other Spanish kingdoms on this side of the Atlantic.

    In the seventh volume of Historia General de España y América: El descubrimiento y la fundación de los reinos ultramarinos (General History of Spain and America: The Discovery and Foundation of the Overseas Kingdoms) says:

    The assignment of coat of arms to cities and towns on the American continent starts with the first coat of arms granted by King Ferdinand the Catholic's Royal Order (Cédula Real), as administrator of the kingdoms of his daughter Queen Juana I of Castille, on the 7th of December of 1508, to the Spanish Island (La Española or Santo Domingo) and some of the existing towns on her.



    The coat of arms of Española is the one granted to the island.

    The original coat of arms of Santo Domingo has been modified, as can be confirmed by looking at the modern coat of arms of the city. However, the modified modern version contains all the details of the original one, but is not as ostentatious. With this said, the original coat of arms of Santo Domingo was the most ostentatious of all coat of arms granted by the Spanish Monarchy to all the Spanish cities in America, demonstrating the privileged position or at least the high esteem with which the first city of the Spanish provinces in America was held.

    Other coat of arms, such as Santiago de los Caballero's, Bonao's or San Juan de la Maguana's among others, have not been changed during the course of the past five centuries and continue to be the official coat of arms of these cities.

    The Spanish towns in what is now the Dominican Republic:

    Puerto de Plata = Puerto Plata
    Buena-Ventura = Doesn't exist anymore, but was located near modern day Los Alcarrizos.
    Bonao
    Santiago
    San Juan de la Maguana
    Santa Cruz = El Seybo
    Compostela de Azua = Azua
    Santo Domingo
    Salvaleón = Higüey
    Concepción de la Vega = La Vega


    The Spanish towns that currently are in Haiti (modern Haitian territory was Spanish territory from 1492 to 1697, afterwards roughly half of the modern Haitian territory became French territory and in 1929 the other half of the modern Haitian territory was ceded by the Dominican Republic to Haiti; in 1929 the Haitians officially took over Dominican Lares de Guhaba also known as Guaba or Hincha in Spanish, the birth place of Pedro Santana and the original homes of Dominican families such as Cabral (moved to Baní), Mejía (moved to Baní and then to Santiago de los Caballeros), Santana (moved to Santiago and then to El Seybo), etc):

    Lares de Guhaba = Hinche
    Vera-Paz = Port-au-Prince
    Puerto Real [de Bayajá] = Fort Liberté
    Villanueva de Yáquimo = Jacmel
    Salvatierra de la Sabana = Les Cayes
    Last edited by NALs; 03-12-2014 at 09:44 PM.

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    Default The African-American Minority (I of III)

    During the Haitian Occupation by the Haitian despot Jean Pierre Boyer a new ethnic minority was added to the Dominican population.

    In 1824 a total of 6,000 African Americans, mostly from Philadelphia and New York City, arrived upon an invitation offered by Jean Pierre Boyer. Many of the African Americans were trying to get away from the delicate racial situation that existed in the United States and almost all of them were born as slaves and given their freedom. For this reason among Dominicans they and their descendants became known as “los negros libertos” (the freed blacks) and as "los americanos" (the Americans.)

    Two reasons explain why the Haitians desired and did everything they could to attract freed slaves from the United States: 1. to increase the black population in the Spanish part of the island, 2. to increase the agricultural output island-wide.

    As can be seen in this official letter sent by Jean Pierre Boyer to an American diplomat in the United States, this was the geographic settlement of the African American colonies on the island of Santo Domingo:



    The red boxes outline the numbers that were settled in the Dominican Republic which amounted to almost half of all African American immigrants.

    Roughly 1,000 arrived through the Puerto Plata seaport and were settled in Puerto Plata itself, Altamira, Santiago, Moca, Macoris (San Francisco), and La Vega. They were meant to increase coffee, tobacco, and cocoa production.

    Roughly 200 arrived via Samaná and were settled there to increase coffee and provisions.

    Roughly 1,200 arrived via Santo Domingo and were settled in Santo Domingo, El Seybo, Higüey, Monte Plata, Boyá, Bayaguana, Los Llanos, San Cristóbal, and Baní. They were meant to increase the production of coffee, cocoa, and sugar cane.

    Of the 600 that arrived via Jacmel an undetermined amount was settled in Neyba. For the sake of discussion I assume 100 were settled in that town and its vicinity.

    In total, roughly 2,500 African Americans were settled in Dominican territory. This contrast with what is claimed by a few Dominican historians, because many have the habit of counting every African American that was brought to the island as if they were all settled on Dominican territory, but that wasn't the case.


    Current Estimate of Dominicans with at least Partial African American Ancestry

    According to various sources, more than half of all African Americans moved back to the United States within 5 years of their arrival.

    The American Samuel Hazard said the following in his 1871 book Santo Domingo Past and Present with a Glance at Haiti regarding the presence of the African Americans in the Dominican Republic. Keep in mind that this was 6 years after the War of Restoration and 27 years after Independence or the end of the 22 years Haitian Occupation. I mention this because the most visible colonies of foreigners and their descendants that Hazard noticed during his 1871 visit, he mentions the Europeans and African American colonies but not the Haitians. Apparently the Haitians didn't had a minority presence that was big enough to be noticed.

    Quote Originally Posted by Samuel Hazard
    It seems probable that more than nine-tenths, perhaps nineteen-twentieths, are native Dominicans. The others are – first, coloured emigrants from the United States; secondly, European traders who do not settle anywhere, but sojourn at commercial points.
    Last edited by NALs; 03-19-2014 at 03:31 PM.

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    Default The African American Minority (II of III)

    Quote Originally Posted by Samuel Hazard
    They are all Roman Catholics, except the American emigrants sent out in 1824 and succeeding years, who, with their descendants, now form a number of settlements and amount to several thousand persons. These are mostly Methodists and Baptists. They live among the Catholics in peace and harmony.
    Quote Originally Posted by Samuel Hazard
    At different times there have been a number of American negroes brought out and located on the island, but in most cases bad faith was kept with them. In the case of those who came out with Redpath, many of them were deceived, and forced to work two days in the week for the [Haitian] government in order to contribute to the money for their passage out.
    Today the area where descendants of African Americans are most noted is in Samaná, especially on the eastern half of the peninsula. This is what Samuel Hazard said about the size of the Samaná population in 1871:

    Quote Originally Posted by Samuel Hazard
    The population is not over 800 or 1,000 souls, the majority of whom are blacks, either emigrants themselves or descendants of those who came from the United States in Boyer’s time.
    Considering that more than half moved back to the United States, and that the colony established in Samaná has traditionally been perceived as the largest of the African American colonies in the Dominican Republic, it's logical to assume that the Samaná colony possibly became the largest as the other colonies in the rest of the country were depleted as many moved back to the United States.

    Taking the largest estimate of Samuel Hazard, the 1,000 African Americans he found in Samaná, in 2010 their descendants should at most amount to 49,920 or 49% the population of the province of Samaná or 86% the population of the municipality of Samaná in that same year.

    On a nationwide scale, my estimate of the number of Dominicans with at least partial African American ancestry is 230,400 or 2.5% of the 2010 nationwide population. Assuming that the population didn't migrate within the DR or to the exterior, then at the very most the African American descendants from Samaná make up 22% of the total of Dominicans with at least partial African American descent with the remaining living elsewhere in the country. This, however, is unrealistic considering the massive migration the country has experienced since the end of the Trujillo dictatorship, both within the country as well as towards other countries, but my estimates are quite liberal and this means that the true numbers are most likely less, but how much less is hard to say.

    Another finding from my estimate is that it's quite possible that the descendants from Samaná are not the majority of the Dominicans of at least partial African American descent, but is rather the colony that has best preserved their American traditions including the English language and their food. This could be due to the isolated nature of the Samaná colony that until recently was almost completely a separate society from mainstream Dominican society, because when the African Americans arrived in Samaná the peninsula was practically uninhabited. The other colonies were integrated into mainstream Dominican society because of constant contact with Dominicans.
    Last edited by NALs; 03-19-2014 at 12:14 PM.

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    Default The African American Minority (III of III)

    The African American Descendants of Puerto Plata

    Of the African Americans that lived in Puerto Plata during Samuel Hazard's 1871 visit, this is what he said:

    Quote Originally Posted by Samuel Hazard
    The ones who came out from America appear particularly intelligent, retaining all the habit of neatness peculiar to our best coloured people. Some of them, in their towering high bandana head and gay coloured striped dresses, were models in this way. However, in conversation with many of these people, I learned they were all willing to work, and work steadily, if they got pay; many of them were perfectly willing to go upon the farms in the vicinity and perform agricultural labours, provided they were sure of pay; but there is no general agriculture and those engaged in it are of limited means and cannot afford to employ labourers.
    In Germán Camarena’s 2003 book Historia de la ciudad de Puerto Plata (The History of the City of Puerto Plata) mentions the following about the African Americans that settled in Puerto Plata:

    Quote Originally Posted by Germán Camarena
    The [Haitian] government gave them and their descendants Haitian citizenship, even though most maintained their North American quality.
    Quote Originally Posted by Germán Camarena
    In 1839 Mr. Jorge Kingsley, with authorization of the Haitian authorities, brought a new group of [African-]American colonists from Florida. They were settled in the sections of Muñoz, Cabarete, and Sabaneta de Yásica, most of whom were Protestants-Methodists.
    He also included the following portraits of some of the African Americans settled in the Puerto Plata area or their descendants:



    A large percentage of the English last names in Puerto Plata were introduced by African Americans and black immigrants from the British Caribbean during the 19th and early 20th centuries.


    Dr. Milton Ray Guevara, the highest ranking Dominican of African American descent in Dominican society


    Dr. Milton Ray Guevara, the current President of the Constitutional Tribunal, is a native of Samaná, a partial descendant of African Americans, and the highest ranking Dominican of partial African American descent in the Dominican government.

    Last edited by NALs; 03-19-2014 at 12:17 PM.

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    Default Charles Mackenzie’s Impressions of Spanish Santo Domingo (I of VI)

    Charles Mackenzie was a Scottish diplomat and British consul in Haiti from 1826 to 1827. Keep in mind that the Haitian Domination started 4 years before he became consul in Haiti and Dominican independence was 17 years into the future after he ended his diplomatic duties, not to mention 103 years before Trujillo rose to power.

    Mackenzie wrote extensively about Haitian and Dominican societies based on his own observations on both sides of the island. The following are some of his impressions of Dominican society under Haitian rule.


    Size of the Dominican Population

    Mackenzie gives the population estimate of a few years before the initiation of the troubles on the French part and then offers two sets of data about the possible size of the population during his time.

    Quote Originally Posted by Charles Mackenzie
    In 1785 the population of the Spanish side of the island was estimated to be

    Free people of all colours.........122,640
    Slaves....................................30,000
    Total......................................152,640

    Four or five years after, that is, at the commencement of the troubles in the western colony, the number was computed at not more than one hundred and eight thousand five hundred (108,500); and this is supposed to have dwindled to one hundred thousand (100,000), immediately before the annexation of the east to the west.
    The following numbers he copied from an American newspaper that he doesn’t name, but claims it was published at the time emigration of African Americans to Haiti was “anxiously promoted.” It gives a total of 61,468.

    Quote Originally Posted by Charles Mackenzie
    Santo Domingo......20,076
    Puerto Plata...........10,622
    Santiago................10,419
    La Vega..................6,178
    Azua......................3,500
    San Juan................2,745
    Neyba.....................2,581
    Samaná..................2,209
    Montecristi..............2,112
    Las Matas de Farfán.1,026
    The following he copied from the 1824 census and gives a total of 71,223.

    Quote Originally Posted by Charles Mackenzie
    Santo Domingo............11,205
    Santiago......................11,056
    La Vega.......................5,650
    El Seybo......................5,364
    Puerto Plata..................4,534
    San Cristóbal................4,020
    Neyba..........................3,516
    Mara............................3,437*
    San Juan de la Maguana.3,386
    San Francisco................3,357
    Azua............................3,208
    Baní.............................2,321
    Las Matas de Farfán.......1,917
    Cotuí............................1,776
    Bayaguana....................1,702
    Higüey..........................1,655
    Los Llanos.....................1,142
    Montecristi.....................1,029
    Samaná.........................754
    Sabana de la Mar............194
    * Might be Moca.
    Last edited by NALs; 03-23-2014 at 09:10 PM.

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    Default Charles Mackenzie’s Impressions of Spanish Santo Domingo (II of VI)

    Santiago’s Population Characteristics

    Quote Originally Posted by Charles Mackenzie
    The population, as a body, is more respectable than usual. The proportion of white and colored men is very considerable; and the blacks are a stout fine race of men. There is no one rich person, or, at least, who would be so considered elsewhere; but there are degrees of wealth even there. By the most intelligent persons to whom I had access, I was informed that even in the town there are none absolutely poor; for wages are high, being three rials a day, or one shilling and sixpence, or two rials with food. All classes have the means of decent subsistence.

    Since the revolution and the establishment of the [Haitian] republican government, great fidelity had been displayed by the former slaves to their masters. They had never been numerous, the discipline never very rigorous, nor had the labor exacted been ever severe. One of the old proprietors, who, from having no other resource, remained with his wife and family, informed me that not one of the former slaves on a small sugar property near to the town had left him; that they retained all the old customs, called him still “amo,” and asked his blessing on their knees whenever he visited them.

    Race/Color Relations in the Cibao and Dominican Attitudes Towards the Haitians

    Quote Originally Posted by Charles Mackenzie
    From this and other statements it would appear that there is a kindly and good feeling of all the castes towards each other in this district; and all of them appear to be what they are represented, highly respectable and well conducted. In proof of this, no insult was offered to the whites at the period of the [Haitian] revolution. I was not a little amused with the contemptuous mode in which even the blacks speak of their western neighbors as “aquellos negros” [those blacks].
    Quote Originally Posted by Charles Mackenzie
    First a black boy and then a black man appeared, each ringing the changes, to all entreaties and supplications, on the two melancholy words “no hay”...

    Profoundly ignorant, my host could give no information on any subject; yet he spoke of his western neighbors with contempt, as inferior to himself and his countrymen of the east. He remembered the inroads in the time of Dessalines, but could give no account of anything beyond the fact that the army was “muy barbaro” [too brutal].
    Quote Originally Posted by Charles Mackenzie
    I spent the best part of the day with the General and the “Commandant de la Place,” Colonel Charlemagne, one of the few educated black men I had known personally. The former had been Count de Gros Morne under Henry [Christophe], who is reported not to have treated him with much delicacy; yet it was clear that there was a lingering feeling of regret for stars, ribbands, and privileges, which are no longer attainable. Both these officers confirmed all that I had ever heard from others of [Henry] Christophe’s depravity and intelligence. This personage had secured as favorable associations with his name at La Vega as at Santiago, having there committed, in 1805, unheard-of atrocities. The want of energy and the moral paralysis of the present day was strongly contrasted, by my informants, with the vigor and activity of the older system.
    Last edited by NALs; 03-23-2014 at 09:18 PM.

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    Default Charles Mackenzie’s Impressions of Spanish Santo Domingo (III of VI)

    Dominican Opinions About the Haitian Domination

    Quote Originally Posted by Charles Mackenzie
    Such were the consequences of the revolution when I witnessed them; and I am disposed to infer, from what I heard at different periods, that the parties referred to attempted in vain to find any trace of compensation for the sacrifice of all their ancient predilections, and even prejudices. They consider their clergy degraded and injured, by being almost reduced to a state of dependence on the already stinted means of their flocks, their religion consequently insulted, for they have no confidence in French or Port-au-Prince Christianity. Their university no longer exists; the public schools are destroyed; and they insist that it is mockery to talk of national schools, the teachers of which are utterly incompetent; but the greatest grievance (and it is a terrible one) is that, at the very age when their sons require the utmost care of a parent, they are bound by the existing law to become soldiers, and to be initiated into all the profligacy of a guard-house, as privates; from which scene of degradation no merit can raise them, while the son of the most worthless chief in the west is at once raised to the rank of an officer. They complain too, that their morals being thus corrupted, there is little chance of the unfortunate individuals ever resuming respectable or decent habits. All these points have been most strongly and feelingly pressed on me by sufferers, in nearly the language used.

    Besides these grievances, there has been no compensation for the slaves liberated at the revolution, many of whom having become soldiers, have left the proprietors without laborers, thus depriving their late masters of their only means of support. The French language too is substituted for Spanish, an insult fully appreciated; and in return for this beautiful independence, it is found not to be recognized by either France or Spain; yet the present government expects the disfranchised Spaniard to contribute his proportion to the liquidation of the French indemnity.

    The reduction of the value of property affords also, where grumbling is permitted, a tolerable good reason for venting occasional complaints. With the effects of these facts I have nothing to do, my present business being merely to record my observations.

    Some time before my arrival in the island, feelings of discontent had displayed themselves so unequivocally that prosecutions were instituted, some individuals shot, and others banished.

    Size and Growth of the Cibao Population

    Quote Originally Posted by Charles Mackenzie
    The population of the district forms more than one-sixth of that of the whole of the east, and was estimated at eleven thousand and fifty-six souls, which is augmenting...

    This rapid increase is ascribed by the inhabitants to the salubrity of the climate, the facility of maintaining a family, and to the general practice of one man having only one wife, which does not prevail to the same extent in the French side.
    Last edited by NALs; 03-23-2014 at 08:59 PM.

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