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Thread: Dominican History with the Evidence

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    Default Charles Mackenzie’s Impressions of Spanish Santo Domingo (IV of VI)

    Characteristics of the Residents of Santo Domingo

    Quote Originally Posted by Charles Mackenzie
    The population is very mixed, consisting of all the classes and castes that are to be seen in the other parts of the island. The number of foreigners is considerably smaller, however, than at Port-au-Prince, [Les] Cayes, or the Cape [Haitian]; while the proportion of native whites and colored people considerably exceeds that of the blacks.

    Color/Race Relations in Santo Domingo and Another Look into Dominican/Haitian Relations

    Quote Originally Posted by Charles Mackenzie
    There did not appear to me to exist to the same extent as elsewhere, the prejudices which form so inveterate an obstacle to the consolidation of the Haitians as a nation having only one common feeling. I chiefly remarked that there was a considerable dislike between the resident priesthood and the soldiery from the west; the one party regarding the other as a band of men without religion or principle, while they were deemed a set of fanatic bigots.

    The Peculiar Slavery that Existed in Spanish Santo Domingo Before the Revolution

    Mackenzie explains the slavery system that existed prior to the revolution in order to explain why it made even more sense that during his time on the island, it was difficult for much material progress to take place on the Spanish side of the island due to scarcity of men willing to work.

    Quote Originally Posted by Charles Mackenzie
    Nor is it all surprising such should be the case under the new regime, since we find that, even so long ago as in the year 1785, with the slave system in full force, there was a deplorable deficiency of labor, so much so that the proprietors... were too poor to employ managers or overseers, but were obliged to superintend in person the operations of their laborers. Nor does there appear to have been any want of industry; but the lack of means of increasing labor kept hem in continued [economic] depression.
    Quote Originally Posted by Charles Mackenzie
    A class of small proprietors of farmers called “estancias,” with two or three negroes, appear to have flourished in San Domingo as well as in Cuba, where they form that very efficient body of men called “monteros.” They labor with their slaves, and fare nearly as they do.

    Many Spanish Haitians still hold “estancias.”
    Last edited by NALs; 03-23-2014 at 08:58 PM.

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    Default Charles Mackenzie’s Impressions of Spanish Santo Domingo (V of VI)

    The Life of Dominican Cattle Ranchers

    Quote Originally Posted by Charles Mackenzie
    The grazing establishment is called “hato,” on which the arrangements (which were very extensive) were made with great precision. The animals were classed according to their habits. The father of the family generally directed the whole, while his sons undertook the executive part of the duty. Their life was one of continued hardship and exposure; yet I question whether there is one who would willingly exchange it for any other.

    San Carlos de Tenerife (modern San Carlos neighborhood in Santo Domingo)

    Quote Originally Posted by Charles Mackenzie
    San Carlos was founded by a colony from the Canary Islands, commonly called “Canarios,” or Isleños. It is said to have been formerly handsome; but Dessalines, when he besieged the city, destroyed all but the church, which still remains, and is a handsome stone edifice.

    The Eastern Part Reminded Mackenzie of Spain.

    Quote Originally Posted by Charles Mackenzie
    The evening being fine, I strolled out, and was strongly reminded of the [Iberian] peninsula by the tinkling of guitars, and the monotonous chant so familiar to all who have visited Spain.
    Quote Originally Posted by Charles Mackenzie
    Of their modes of general intercourse with each other... is much the same as in the mother country [Spain], the habits of which seem to have invariably rooted themselves wherever the Spaniards have had ascendancy.

    The tinkling of the guitar in the streets in the evening is associated with so many pleasing recollections to most [Iberian] peninsular travelers, that even in hands not molded to elicit eloquent music, it excites sensations nearly allied to those of the highlander at the animating sound of the pibroch. All is, I apprehend, dependent on associations with either some pleasing fantasy, that has influenced the feelings “in earlier days and happier hours.” Nearly every evening these sounds continued until the usual hour of repose, ten o’clock; and I confess they were agreeable with me.
    Last edited by NALs; 03-23-2014 at 08:57 PM.

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    Default Charles Mackenzie’s Impressions of Spanish Santo Domingo (VI of VI)

    Description of San Juan de la Maguana

    Quote Originally Posted by Charles Mackenzie
    San Juan in days of yore had been a place of note, and contained, as I was told, some convents; but they were all destroyed during the civil contests, though the final blow was given by Dessalines. At present, even the traces of the church are scarcely to be made out; and the town itself reminds one of the accounts given by travelers in India, of the villages ruined by the Pindarrie incursion.

    How the Spanish Part Returns to Spanish Rule

    Quote Originally Posted by Charles Mackenzie
    It is well known that, by the ninth article of the treaty of Basle concluded the 22nd of July, 1795, between France and Spain, the eastern part of St. Domingo was added to the former power, in consideration of giving up all her conquests in the Pyrenees. There appears to have been some subsequent understanding between the parent states, for no orders appear to have been ever given to the republicans chiefs in the island to occupy it; indeed, positive instructions not to do so are said by Lacroix to have been sent to Toussaint L’Overture, who, suspecting their import, pressed on in advance of the officer conveying the despatches, and had taken military possession of the city itself before they reached him. He thus attained his object without appearing to do so, in opposition to higher powers.

    After Leclerc arrived, the city, in common with the whole island, fell into his hands, and remained so until 1801*, when the small French force then occupying it capitulated to the late General Carmichael, who, I presume, from directions from home, delivered possession to the Spanish authorities, at the head of whom was Don Juan Sánchez; thus the cession made in 1795 was actually voided by conquest; and to confirm the right of possession, it was stipulated by the eighth article of the treaty of Paris, concluded 30th of May, 1814, that “His most Christian Majesty restores in full right and sovereignty to His Catholic Majesty, the portion of St. Domingo ceded to France by the treaty of Basle.” Thus from that period the point of lawful possession was fixed and acted upon by the contracting parties.
    *He meant to say 1808/09.


    Royal French ordinance in recognition of Haitian Independence in 1825

    The following is a copy of the royal French ordinance that the French king gave in order to recognize Haiti’s independence in 1825. Keep in mind that the Haitian Domination of the Spanish part started in 1822 and ended in 1844, but neither France nor Spain recognized Haiti as an independent nation. As far as these two nations were concerned, the island was still divided between the rebellious French colony and the Spanish province.

    Another detail that is often ignored is that Spain never recognized the first Dominican independence of 1821, so when the Haitians invaded in 1822 and initiated the Haitian Domination, they effectively entered Spanish territory. This is the reason why the Spanish monarchy contacted Boyer on several occasions demanding him to return to Spain what was rightfully hers.

    All of this is important to have in mind because the agreement in which the French monarchy agrees to recognize Haiti’s independence, in article 2 it clearly states that the obligation to pay for the debt falls on the inhabitants of the French part of the island (in French: Les habitants actuels de la partie Francoise de St. Domingue.) All other requirements in this also pertained to the French part of the island and the inhabitants of the French part.

    This is the reason Dominicans refused to pay the taxes that Jean Pierre Boyer pretended to levy on the Spanish side in order to pay the debt to France. This was also another sour point in Dominican-Haitian relations.


    Last edited by NALs; 03-23-2014 at 09:30 PM.

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    Default Real Audiencia de Santo Domingo (1511-1800, 1812-1821, 1861-1865)

    In Kate Santon and Liz McKay’s 2012 Atlas of World History is this map that shows the extent of the Real Audiencia de Santo Domingo’s (Royal Court of Santo Domingo) jurisdiction. This was the first royal court in America, created in 1511 by the Spanish monarchy.

    The Audiencia de Santo Domingo was based in the Palacio de las Casas Reales, on calle Las Damas, in Santo Domingo from its inception until 1800 when it was moved to Camagüey, Cuba and renamed Real Audiencia de Puerto Príncipe (Camagüey is the indigenous name of the area where the city is located, but at the time the royal court was transferred the city was named Puerto Príncipe). Originally the jurisdiction encompassed the entire Antilles archipelago and the Caribbean coasts of South America and Central America plus Florida. Its jurisdiction was later modified, as can be seen in the map below which represents the political situation after 1550.

    In 1812 Spain reestablished the Real Audiencia de Santo Domingo with jurisdiction limited to the island of Santo Domingo and lasted until 1821 when D. José Núñez de Cáceres declares the separation of the Spanish part of the island of Santo Domingo from the Kingdom of Spain.

    In 1861, as the DR became a province of Spain for a third time, SD’s royal court was reestablished and it was abolished in 1865 as the War of Restoration ends with the reestablishment of the Dominican Republic as an independent country.


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    Default Changes to the Dominican-Haitian Border (I of IV)

    The original border was agreed upon and fixed between Spain and France in the Treaty of Aranjuez of 1777. This border was in effect during the following intervals:

    1777-1801: From the year the Treaty of Aranjuez went into effect until the first Haitian invasion of 1801 lead by Haitian leader Toussaint L’Overture. His justification for invading the Spanish territory, which was still governed by Spanish Governor D. Joaquín García y Moreno, was to put into effect the Treaty of Basel signed between Spain and France in 1795. Due to the illegal nature of Toussaint’s invasion, which he did without previous approval from Paris, Napoleon Bonaparte sent his military troops to the island led by French General Leclerc (General Ferrand takes over once Leclerc dies from yellow fever), with orders to capture Toussaint, send him as a prisoner to France for committing the illegal act, and ensure that the island is in legitimate French leadership. In 1802 Paul L’Overture, Toussaint’s brother who since 1801 was in charge of Santo Domingo and the Ozama district (modern southern and eastern regions of the DR plus the Guava Valley which is now much of the Centre department of Haiti), capitulated to the troops of French General Leclerc and handed over the district. The Cibao department (modern northern region of the DR) was quickly taken over by the French too. Then the French began to focus on taking over the French cities in the western part of the island which were ruled by their former slaves, but Jean Jacques Dessalines fell into a fury once he heard that Toussaint had been imprisoned and sent to France, effectively initiating the Haitian Revolution. The very first victims of the Haitian Revolution was a group of Dominican prisoners in Port-au-Prince who were all bludgeon to death as an act of revenge.

    1804-1822: In 1804 Jean Jacques Dessalines declares the independence of Haiti, but the Haitians had full control of the former French cities in the western part of the island while the Spanish cities in the central and eastern parts of the island remained under French rule and the French didn't recognized Haiti's independence until almost a quarter of a century later. In this year the original border between Saint-Domingue and Santo Domingo is re-instituted, but this time it was between Haiti (former Saint-Domingue) and “French” Santo Domingo (comprised the totality of the Spanish territory; I also put French in quotes because there was only around 2,000 French in the Spanish territory attempting to rule a population of more than 100,000 Spanish).

    In 1805 Jean Jacques Dessalines and Henry Christophe attempt to take control of the Spanish territory ruled by the French by invading with a formidable military and subjugating Santo Domingo to a month long siege. In the end Dessalines fails in his attempt and on his way back to Haiti, with one part of the troops returning through the southern part and another through the Cibao, took his revenge on the towns and rural settlements found along the way by laying to waste everything that was in his path. This included murdering most of the people he found, taking as prisoners hundreds of others to Cap Haitien where they were later bludgeoned to death, burning every town; destroyed all records, and even destroyed the plots of the farmers and chopped the trees in the rural areas along the path back to Haiti. The survivors were the people that successfully fled the towns and rural areas and hid in the forests and mountains before the Haitian troops arrived, albeit everyone suffered material losses.

    From 1805 to 1808 the Spanish territory continued to be ruled by the French and the former French territory was the Republic of Haiti, but in 1808 the Dominicans finally revolted against French rule due to the mistreatment the French had subjected the population to and because the French invaded Spain and put a French monarch in Madrid. The War of Reconquest of 1808-1809 on the island of Santo Domingo was an extension of the war of Spanish reconquest on the Iberian Peninsula against French rule. The difference is that the Dominican reconquest lasted a few months while the Iberian reconquest didn't end until a few years later. In 1809 the Spanish part of Santo Domingo that was under French rule returns to Spanish sovereignty, an act that the French formally recognized five years later in the Treaty of Paris of 1814. The reconquest of Spanish Santo Domingo in 1809 informally annuls the Treaty of Basel of 1795 and the Treaty of Paris of 1814 formalizes the annulment and, by consequence, renders illegitimate any claims on the Spanish part of the island that uses the Treaty of Basel as its basis.

    In 1821 D. José Núñez de Cáceres declares the Spanish part of the island free from Spanish rule, even though Spain never recognizes this independence, with the new state inheriting the Spanish territory with the border established in 1777. Two months later, in 1822, Haitian despot Jean Pierre Boyer invades the Spanish territory alleging it was not an invasion, yet he felt the need to subjugate roughly 60,000 people in the Spanish part with an invading force that amounted to the equivalent of 17% to 33% of the population.
    Last edited by NALs; 04-01-2014 at 06:05 PM.

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    Default Changes to the Dominican-Haitian Border (II of IV)

    1844-1929: On the 27th of February of 1844, after several failed attempts at liberating from the oppressive Haitian rule (the first attempt of revolt by the Dominican population started just two years after the invasion of 1822, but was successfully put down by the Haitians by capturing the leaders and shooting them to death), Dominicans finally manage to peacefully shake off the Haitian yoke. On this day Dominicans take control of the former Spanish part of the island and the very Constitution state that the territorial limits of the Dominican Republic was the totality of the former Spanish part of the island of Santo Domingo as stipulated in the Treaty of Aranjuez in 1777.

    The Dominican government attempted to reach an agreement with the Haitian authorities by sending various letters to Port-au-Prince asking for a treaty of peace and trade between the two countries, not to mention a formal recognition of Dominican independence by the Haitian government. These letters were never responded to by the Haitian authorities, an act that Dominicans interpreted as hostile, and in March Haitian troops begin the first of five military invasion attempts in which the Haitian troops not only violated Dominican sovereignty of the Dominican people and territory, but also harassed the Dominican civilian population they found along the way. For this reason, in April (roughly two months after the declaration of independence) the Dominican government officially wages war against Haiti “by land and by sea” alleging the abuses perpetrated by the Haitians in their penetration of Dominican territory, and declares that any Dominican that helps the Haitians in any way will be treated as if they were Haitians too.

    In the declaration of war it also states that the Dominican government laments the barbaric way in which the Haitian troops were mistreating the Dominican civilian population it found along the way when the Dominicans, from the very beginning of the independence movement, had treated the Haitian military and government officials in the Spanish territory with the most integrity to their safety and that of their families. This war lasted 12 years (1844-1856) and the only reason new military invasion attempts were not continued by the Haitians after 1856 was because Haitian military generals were tired of constantly losing to Dominicans in the various invasions attempts and revolted against Haitian Emperor Faustin I (Faustin Solouque), who is credited to have said prior to invasion attempt of 1856 that if his invasion was successful that not even the chickens were going to be left alive in the Dominican Republic, presumably alluding to a plan of widespread massacre of the Dominican population.

    The Haitians did maintained a border dispute even after 1856 which was the cause of various Dominican-Haitian fighting along the border and kept both governments in a constant belligerent state, even during the times of official peace. Haiti coveted the Guava Valley where Dominican towns such as San Rafael de la Angostura, San Miguel de la Atalaya, Lares de Guava or Hincha and other towns are located. Dominicans refused to acknowledge Haitian claims on that territory because the Dominican Republic inherited the entire Spanish territory of the island and the border, as established in the Treaty of Aranjuez of 1777, clearly conferred those territories to the Dominicans. However, due to American pressure to settle the border dispute between the two countries, the Dominican government under the leadership of Horacio Vásquez reaches a border agreement with the “Haitian” government (Haitian is in quotes because at that time it was under American military intervention) in 1929 effectively handing over the Guava Valley to Haiti and modifying the border. In 1936 the Trujillo regime went back to the negotiation table with the Haitian government (this time Haiti was under Haitian rule) in which the eastern half of the Azuey Lake (Etang Saumatre) was transferred to Haiti (the eastern shore of the lake is the demarcation between the border of the two countries), with Haiti agreeing to let the Dominican population continue to benefit from the fishing in the lake as they had done for generations, as well as transferring to Haiti the Miel Valley (where towns such as Las Cahobas are located) and Haiti promised to keep its population from trespassing into Dominican territory and to desist from its policy of encouraging Haitian citizens to settle on Dominican territory with the hopes of in the future laying claim on legitimate Dominican land. With the agreement of 1936 the border between the two countries is the one that exist until today.
    Last edited by NALs; 04-01-2014 at 03:33 PM.

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    Default Changes to the Dominican-Haitian Border (III of IV)

    Island of Santo Domingo
    76,192 km2

    Modifications of the Border from 1777 to Today

    Dominican Territory
    1777-1801, 1804-1822 and 1844-1929 = 54,642 km2 (72% of the island)

    1929-1936 = 50,070 km2 (66% of the island)

    1936-today = 48,442 km2 (64% of the island)

    Haitian Territory
    1777-1801 and 1804-1929 = 21,550 km2 (28% of the island)

    1929-1936 = 26,122 km2 (34% of the island)

    1936-today = 27,750 km2 (36% of the island)


    Border Treaty of 1929 = 4,572 km2 were ceded to Haiti.

    Decree of 1936 = an additional 1,628 km2 were ceded to Haiti.
    Last edited by NALs; 04-01-2014 at 08:08 PM.

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    Default Changes to the Dominican-Haitian Border (IV of IV)

    Times when the Island at least Politically was United

    1492-1697 = Entire island was under Spanish rule for 205 years. In 1697 the Spanish government recognizes the French presence on the western end of the island, but an official border was not officially defined until the Treaty of Aranjuez of 1777.

    1801-1802 = Entire island was under Haitian rule lead by Toussaint L’Overture for less than one year.

    1822-1844 = Entire island was under Haitian rule lead by Jean Pierre Boyer for 22 years.

    1916-1924 = During these 8 years the island continued to be officially split between Haiti and the Dominican Republic, but Haiti had been militarily intervened by the US Marines in 1915 until 1934 while the Dominican Republic was militarily intervened by the US Marines in 1916 until 1924. While the two countries each had a separate US military general ruling them, at the end of the day the entire island was under the direct rule from Washington DC.


    Conclusion

    If we accept that the Spanish era corresponds to the Dominican Republic and the French era to Haiti, then the following conclusions come into play:

    Full island wide rule by Spaniards/Dominicans: 205 years (1492-1697)

    Full island wide rule by French/Haitians: 23 years

    Spanish/Dominican presence on the island: 522 years (1492-2014)

    Recognized French/Haitian presence on the island: 317 years (for those that accept that most Haitians don’t have French blood then it could be divided in 107 years recognized presence by the French 1697-1804 and 210 years recognized presence by the Haitians 1804-2014)



    Map of the island in the 1860s by the American Joseph Fabens. Notice the border.
    Last edited by NALs; 04-01-2014 at 03:37 PM.

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    Default The Suppose Haitian Origin of Various Dominican Surnames (I of II)

    During 2013 several articles were published in various Dominican newspapers alleging French/Haitian origins to many Dominican last names. While some of the names included in those lists did originate in, or arrived in the Dominican Republic via, Haiti; a large number of the last names presented are not of French/Haitian origin, but rather legitimate Spanish last names.

    Another aspect that is clearly evident in the manipulation those lists and articles have been subjected to, is that many of the Spanish last names that they are trying to present as French/Haitian, they also claim these last names arrived in the Dominican Republic during the Jean Pierre Boyer led Haitian Invasion of 1822 that lasted until the country's independence in 1844.

    In the following two sections I will show not only how can people verify the Spanish origin of various last names, but also by checking legitimate Dominican historical documents, in this case baptism and death records from the early 19th Century, to confirm the presence on Dominican soil of many last names well before the Haitian invasion of 1822 and also, in some cases, before the Haitian invasion of 1805.


    I. In the Instituto Nacional de Estadística de España website you can verify what last names are of Spanish origin and where they are most prominent/originated in Spain itself.

    Once in the website, in the upper right corner you will see two links like this: ES EN. Click on EN to convert the page to English. To search for a last name you must first go to Place of Birth box and click on a blue box under the number 54, this will highlight all Spanish provinces. Then, go to the Surname box and type a last name and then click submit to get the results.

    For example, if we use one of the French last names included in one of the lists (CHEVALIER), this is the result:

    (Remember to right click and then click on “open image in new tab” to see the full image)



    Given that CHEVALIER is not of Spanish origin, it should be of no surprise that it hardly exists in Spain. The Spanish province with the most number of people that carry the last name CHEVALIER is Almería with a grand total of 5 people.

    Look what happens when the search is DELGADO. This last name was among the included in one of the lists presented Dominican newspapers as of French/Haitian origin.



    DELGADO has a much greater coverage, because it is of Spanish origin. The Spanish province with the highest concentration of last name is Santa Cruz de Tenerife in the Canary Islands, with over 9,000 people.

    This coincides with a wedded couple that in 1684 migrated from the Canary Islands to the Spanish part of the island of Santo Domingo (aka modern Dominican Republic), as can be seen here:



    People need to be very careful with many of the pro-Haitian articles that have been published in many Dominican newspapers, especially when it comes to aspects of the past. There is a tendency to manipulate the past in ways that are easily identifiable, but are betting that most Dominicans will not be doing any research on their own to confirm that, in effect, they are being told many lies.
    Last edited by NALs; 04-21-2014 at 10:53 PM.

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    Default The Suppose Haitian Origin of Various Dominican Surnames (II of II)

    II. This is probably the easiest way of noticing the lies that are being said. The following evidence is of a handful of last names that are unquestionably of Spanish origin that have been presented as French/Haitian in the Dominican newspapers. They also claim that the last names arrived in the Dominican Republic during the Haitian invasion of 1822-1844.

    DEATH RECORDS OF MOCA IN 1801

    It's very hard to accept that these last names arrived during the Haitian Invasion of 1822-1844, when they appear in Moca 21 years before the invasion.

    CARABALLO


    LIZARDO


    MOREL


    POLONIA


    ROSARIO




    BAPTISM RECORDS OF LA VEGA FROM 1805 TO 1812

    MONEGRO


    PAULINO


    HOLGUIN


    ABREU


    BORGES


    DURAN


    This is only a glimpse of many last names that not only are of Spanish origin, but have been in the Dominican Republic well before the Haitian Invasion of 1822-1844, and in many cases predating the arrival of the French to the island of Tortuga, from which the French colony of Saint-Domingue got its start.

    Personally, this attempt in confusing Dominicans through lies in the Dominican newspapers, in this case by claiming French/Haitian origins to family names that are legitimately Spanish/Dominican, is a continuation on the incessant attacks that Dominican identity, Dominican society, and the Dominican state has been subjected to for the past few decades.

    It appears that some groups are trying very hard to fracture Dominican society, perhaps with the hopes that with the passage of time it will create the conditions for the destruction of the Dominican Republic in its political and cultural aspects. They are unabashedly lying about the past in order to accommodate Dominican society to what they perceive should be a Haitianized future.

    This is completely unacceptable!
    Last edited by NALs; 04-22-2014 at 02:51 PM.

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