"Upon declaring independence, Haiti claimed a singular place in world history. The Haitian revolution, lasting from 1791 to 1804, culminated in the first independent nation in the Caribbean, the second democracy in the western hemisphere, and the first black republic in the world."I confess that I know next to nothing about the colonialism of the great European powers in other hemispheres.
The United States has not been what would be considered a successful colonial power - as might the English be - for example. The British, in this hemisphere, left its colonies, including the United States, with a firm system of rule of law.
I lived in Grenada, back in the early 70s, when they were just getting independence from Great Britain - at Great Britain's insistence. One of the main fears that I heard was that they would no longer have access to the High Court in Jamaica.
The British took a man, Eric Gairy, who had led revolts of the sugar cane workers down the chain of islands, gave him a short course in leadership, and turned the country over to him. At the time of independence, what Gairy was asking for was a jet port, so that tourists from the United States would not have to overnight in Barbados before flying on the next day to Grenada.
Evidently Washington or the British could not be bothered with such a small expense and waited until Maurice Bishop took over -- Calling himself the "New Jewel Movement - and "Marxist Leninist" - (I knew him - a very educated but hardly militant lefty) - who invited in Cuba - who did indeed Build That Airport... Big enough for fighter jets.
The US has simply tried to Make The World Safe for Capitalism... It has not sent "settlers" for the most part..
Even the "colonization" of Puerto Rico has not been like that of - say - like that of France in Martinique - which is actually a part of France.
Even now, a majority of Puerto Ricans do not speak English. Their education is in Spanish. Their court system is in Spanish. Only their Federal Courts are in English.
When the US occupied-( up until about 1958, I think when we pretty much gave up except for holding Roosevelt Roads Navy Base & Vieques & Culebra - now gone after 2001)
they lowered the Puerto Rican flag and put up the Stars and Stripes - tried to outlaw Spanish.
Puerto Ricans were granted US citizenship in 1917 in order to fight in WW1.
But the Jones Act from 1912, which forbids shipping into Puerto Rico in any ship made out outside the US (there are some exemptions for some shipping from the DR), keeps the DR in a "semi-colonial lock down. There has never been an election in which a majority of Puerto Ricans who have voted for Statehood.
(Nor, I expect, will it ever be granted)
The sad reality is that Haiti has not been able to establish viable governmental control and organization.
Descendants of former African slaves live on all Caribbean islands and have been able to make a life for themselves.
Maybe it is because colonial governments installed proper structures.
There are today few countries worth while living in, while most of the world is in chaos and under dictatorships.
The few good countries are predominantly the former colonials, who established governments, democracies and structures.
Most of the refugees economic or political, are trying to get into those maligned former colonial countries.
Ask yourself why?