Now all U.S. citizens can receive their blank ballots electronically. Depending on your state or county, you can get your ballot by email, fax, or internet download To start, go to FVAP.gov to fill out a new Federal Post Card Application (FPCA). Don’t delay. Do it today! Include your email address on the form. If your state delivers ballots electronically by fax only, be sure to include your fax number. If you request electronic delivery and include your email address or fax number, you’ll receive your blank ballot 45 days before the election. Most states now have voter registration verification websites, and many offer a means of tracking the progress of your voted ballot.
No. You have to register with your last State of residency as absentee voter. They will mail or email your ballot. Virginia emails it. That's how I voted last election. I just got a confirmation email from VA telling me they received our registration and ballot request. Ballots will be emailed by end of September.
The challenge is to get it back to the States. the easiest thing is finding someone who's traveling before election day who can put it in the mail for you. I don't know if the Embassy has a way of helping us getting the ballots to US, but it'll be very nice if they did.
Here's the site I used to register in 08. This time I did it directly with my state.