From the Just Security article QUOTE
The Times’ meticulous exposé of the massive debt that France illegally extorted from Haiti after its independence demonstrates how the payments – totaling an estimated $21-115 billion – kept Haiti poor and unstable
for two centuries. The investigation also documented that the U.S. Marines’ forced transfer of $500,000 in gold from Haiti’s national bank to CitiGroup in New York in 1914, and the 19-year occupation that followed, was spurred in part by pressure
from Wall Street.
Haiti has a strong claim for restitution for this theft and extortion. Haiti only signed the contract for the debt in 1823 because France parked warships off the coast and threatened to invade Haiti and re-enslave its people. Reinstituting slavery was illegal at the time, so the contract for the debt was also illegal. Similarly, CitiGroup, which won the lucrative business of managing Haiti’s loans by convincing the United States to invade, may face claims for restitution of its unjust profits.
But history shows that France, the United States, and other countries whose current prosperity is built in part on a foundation of slavery and immiseration in Haiti have been unwilling to allow Haiti to pursue its claims for justice. The amount France owes Haiti is significant, but even more is at stake. If the descendants of Haitians forced to pay for their emancipation win their restitution claim, they may open the door to a long line of claims for reparations by the descendants of everyone subject to the horrors of slavery and the slave trade."...
There is more context that needs to be added, I think.
The Haitian Revolution (and defeat of Napoleon's forces) was in 1803 https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/haitian-independence-proclaimed
The US Constitution --Written in 1787, ratified in 1788, and in operation since 1789, the United States Constitution is the world's longest surviving written charter of ... was at the time a slave owning, slave trading, and slave transporting nation at the time of Haiti's independence
ALL the existing US territory was involved in slavery.
Quote - A majority of the signers of the Declaration of Independence and nearly half of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention owned slaves
. Four of the first five presidents of the United States were slaveowners. (filed.Dec 8, 2020)
The institution of slavery – protected by law in all 13 American colonies when they declared their independence from Great Britain in 1776 – proved to be a...
So a nation of freed slaves was considered an existential threat.
The US not only sided with France but also enforced a trade blockade to force Haiti to sign...
Haiti paid "reparations" to France - for the LOSS of their most lucrative colony.. for the loss of enslaved labor... until, I believe, 1947
(I am not able to cite a reference since I have read SO Many Books on Haiti)
In order to actually have any MONEY on the ground - the only thing that remained was THE MAHAGONY trees
which are a canopy tree
whose roots hold down the top soil
etc. etc. etc.