The higher the level of education the less of these speech patterns you will hear in the DR . . .
It all puts me in mind of a month I spent in Costa Rica in the year 2000. For my first week I went to the Pura Vida language school in Heredia. But I just did that in the mornings. The afternoons I spent in the Plaza de Armes talking to the old men, and in the bars talking to whoever. At the end of the one-week course (and before I set out to explore Costa Rica) I was presented with the certificate and with a special mention for my command of el idioma de calle.
Two interesting aspects of castellano costaricense were:
1. They did not use the familiar tu form (whereas most new-world idioms overuse it)
2. They did not conjugate the future tense (suited me fine to say "I am going to . . ." rather than fiddle with verb endings)
The reason why the tú
form of the verb was not used is because Costa Rica is voseo
country. Was that not mentioned to you in the school you went to? To a certain extent foreigners (especially in Costa Rica) need to be aware of this form of address. It’s the informal ‘you’ just like tú
but the verb forms differ in the present tense. Costa Ricans meaning entre ellos
don’t use the tú
form. Foreigners can because they are not expected to know voseo
forms but one Costa Rican to another tú
is not used.
usage is the absolute linguistic currency in Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay. However, in some areas you will hear a mix like in Montevideo. Speakers either use pure voseo
usage meaning vos + a verb conjugated in the voseo
form or tú + a voseo conjugated verb form. Then there are pockets of voseo
usage in many other Latin American countries such as Chile, Colombia, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Bolivia just to name a few. The voseo usage did not make it to the Caribbean per se (and if it’s there now that would be of a more recent linguistic drift). If someone in the Spanish-speaking world speaks to you using forms like vos sos, vos decís
etc. you can narrow down where the person is from via voseo
usage and then the accent.
I can’t comment on the lack of the usage of the future tense since I have not had much exposure to Spanish spoken in Costa Rica. In general, I know Spanish in Costa Rica varies because of their history which definitely influenced the spoken language. The afro costarricense
element is huge and adds to the diversity of their speech patterns. If you stayed in San José the vernacular is different from Limón for example which has a significant afro Caribbean presence thus influencing the speech patterns which is very similar to Panama. I have watched dialogue and listened to Costa Ricans talk about their history online in Spanish and it’s fascinating and consistent with what I have read.