Jovenel Moïse is a dictator at this point...

mountainannie

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Another Associated Press journalist who was on the ground during Aristide wrote the essential book on Aristide. Associated Press and the United Press International are the "wire services" of the United States - as Reuters is for the UK. Their salaried reporters are on the ground in dangerous places all over the world. You will see their stories in all major newspapers with the header "AP or UPI" These stories are gathered by the "kids" (and they are usually under 30) who brave the bullets to bring us the news.

Michael (whom I am proud to call a friend) has written another book about Haiti - which I confess I have not yet read.

 
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mountainannie

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Just to fill in the history - the reparation payments went on til 1947 - with US (Citi Bank ) having seized the Haitian treasury in 1911 for repayment to France. No other colonial nation in the world had to pay their former "owner" for their freedom. The US invaded and occupied Haiti from 1915-1934 https://history.state.gov/milestones/1914-1920/haiti - Here - an article by Edwidge Dandicat - the absolute most prominent Haitian (American) writer, winner of a McCarthur Genius Award - https://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/haiti-us-occupation-hundred-year-anniversary
 
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mountainannie

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From the article posted above -

..."A few days ago, I found myself standing between Mapasse and Jimaní, at the border between Haiti and the Dominican Republic, a border drawn with American help in 1936.* On May 13, 1916, the United States invaded the Dominican Republic for the first time, annexing the two countries for eight years, between 1916 and 1924. During the 1929 U.S.-guided border negotiations, Haiti lost some land, and many Haitians suddenly found themselves on Dominican soil.

The occupation of the Dominican Republic, like the occupation of Haiti, was motivated by regional and commercial interests. “In the Dominican Republic, American multinationals laid out vast new sugar plantations, which needed more workers than Santo Domingo could provide,” Michele Wucker writes in “Why the Cocks Fight: Dominicans, Haitians, and the Struggle for Hispaniola.” “Haiti, with the same population but half the land, was a natural source, so the companies moved thousands of people across the border, establishing a steady flow from west to east.”

At the Jimaní-Mapasse border today, there is still a flow of hard laborers. They drag empty wheelbarrows past heavily armed guards through a dusty gate into the Dominican Republic, then return loaded with merchandise in what seems like a one-way commercial exchange. With the recent application of a court ruling allowing for the expulsion of Haitian residents of the Dominican Republic and Dominicans of Haitian descent, there is now a different kind of flow. At a nearby school and church on the Haitian side of the border, I met dozens of people who say that they were picked up by police and soldiers in the Dominican Republic, put in the back of pickup trucks, and dropped at the border. Some are Haitian-born, but many are Dominican-born, especially the children. Many have cards saying that they had registered for a regularization program, which was supposed to guarantee them some protection until their cases were decided, on August 1st."...
 

NanSanPedro

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Just to fill in the history - the reparation payments went on til 1947 - with US (Citi Bank ) having seized the Haitian treasury in 1911 for repayment to France. No other colonial nation in the world had to pay their former "owner" for their freedom. The US invaded and occupied Haiti from 1915-1934 https://history.state.gov/milestones/1914-1920/haiti - Here - an article by Edwidge Dandicat - the absolute most prominent Haitian (American) writer, winner of a McCarthur Genius Award - https://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/haiti-us-occupation-hundred-year-anniversary

Wow!!!! Never knew the US was complicit in this. Thanks so much Annie for posting!!
 
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mountainannie

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For those who are not inclined to read the entire US official history report -

..."As a result of increased instability in Haiti in the years before 1915, the United States heightened its activity to deter foreign influence. Between 1911 and 1915, seven presidents were assassinated or overthrown in Haiti, increasing U.S. policymakers’ fear of foreign intervention. In 1914, the Wilson administration sent U.S. Marines into Haiti. They removed $500,000 from the Haitian National Bank in December of 1914 for safe-keeping in New York, thus giving the United States control of the bank. In 1915, Haitian President Jean Vilbrun Guillaume Sam was assassinated and the situation in Haiti quickly became unstable. In response, President Wilson sent the U.S. Marines to Haiti to prevent anarchy. In actuality, the act protected U.S. assets in the area and prevented a possible German invasion.

The invasion ended with the Haitian-American Treaty of 1915. The articles of this agreement created the Haitian Gendarmerie, essentially a military force made up of U.S. citizens and Haitians and controlled by the U.S. Marines. The United States gained complete control over Haitian finances, and the right to intervene in Haiti whenever the U.S. Government deemed necessary. The U.S. Government also forced the election of a new pro-American President, Philippe Sudré Dartiguenave, by the Haitian legislature in August 1915. The selection of a President that did not represent the choice of the Haitian populace increased unrest in Haiti."...
 
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mountainannie

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Wow!!!! Never knew the US was complicit in this. Thanks so much Annie for posting!!
Nan - the entire island of Hispaniola has been a semi "captured territory" of the USA since - well -one could speculate - the overt invasion and occupation of the DR - 1916-1924 - the support of Trujillo - then the ousting/overthrow of Bosch. The US has essentially lost influence on both sides to the drug trade since there is more money now floating in from cocaine than any sort of aid/sanctions to/from the US government. Only my opinion, of course. But - informed, as I have said. Before the fall of Aristide 95% of the drug trade was on the Haitian side. When I was at a presentation by the drug enforcement agency there in DR, perhaps in 2013(?), they said that after the arrival of MINUSTAH, 95% had shifted to the Dominican side and that 15% of all the cocaine from South America transited through Hispaniola. Under Aristide, Haiti had become essentially a narcoState.
 

Naked_Snake

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From the article posted above -

..."A few days ago, I found myself standing between Mapasse and Jimaní, at the border between Haiti and the Dominican Republic, a border drawn with American help in 1936.* On May 13, 1916, the United States invaded the Dominican Republic for the first time, annexing the two countries for eight years, between 1916 and 1924. During the 1929 U.S.-guided border negotiations, Haiti lost some land, and many Haitians suddenly found themselves on Dominican soil.
It is actually the opposite, Haiti gained 6,000kms with that treaty from what was the original Dominican (Spanish) territory as per the treaty of Aranjuez of 1777.
 

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Naked_Snake

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The Yanks from the USDOS at the time (Sumner Welles et. al.) the only thing they did was to make solid the line that was drawn by force of arms during the armistice/truce of 1856, resulting from Soulouque's last invasion attempt being repelled, but this country failing to liberate the towns in the Central Plateau he took on the attempt.
 
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mountainannie

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Oh- Cholera- I forgot Cholera - brought to Haiti courtesy of the UN troops in 2010. So - well - much as I may blame the Haitians for the current state of affairs - they certainly didn't have a whole helluva lot of help from the outside world. It does seem that any sort of intervention only makes things worse. They refer to themselves as the "country of NGOs" since still the best paying jobs are with the NGOs. And the Christian missionaries keep making them thank Jesus for the medical treatment & food that are given out while the Christian networks here in the USA preach that "Haiti was given to Haiti" so - really - Not Much Help at ALL.
I meant to write:"Haiti was given to Satan" - that is what Pat Robertson preaches on his prominent Christian network here...
..."But Pat Robertson, the Christian televangelist, has a different explanation guaranteed to scandalize untold numbers. On the "700 Club" he said Haitians made a pact with the devil to be freed from their French colonizers in the 18th Century.

So, as far as Robertson is concerned, the fault is not in the ground; it's in the Haitians."...
 

Naked_Snake

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So, as far as Robertson is concerned, the fault is not in the ground; it's in the Haitians."...
At the time he could have phrased it in a more liberal/intelligent way such as "the destiny of countries/nations is tied to how solidly educated their populations are" and no one would batted an eyelash. Nowadays it's another story.
 

mountainannie

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It is actually the opposite, Haiti gained 6,000kms with that treaty from what was the original Dominican (Spanish) territory as per the treaty of Aranjuez of 1777.
Yes - well - that is the problem between the history that is taught on one side vs the history taught on the other side. You might consider writing to Edwidge over this? When I was there, Haitians could only draw a map of their SIDE of the Island and Dominicans could only draw a map of THEIRS! I rarely saw a map anywhere that actually depicted the ENTIRE island - let alone Hispaniola in relation to rest of the world.

danticatedwidge@gmail.com
 

Naked_Snake

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Yes - well - that is the problem between the history that is taught on one side vs the history taught on the other side. You might consider writing to Edwidge over this? When I was there, Haitians could only draw a map of their SIDE of the Island and Dominicans could only draw a map of THEIRS! I rarely saw a map anywhere that actually depicted the ENTIRE island - let alone Hispaniola in relation to rest of the world.

danticatedwidge@gmail.com
Of course she would claim differently. Haitians at all moments used the "uti possidetis" (possession is 9/10ths of the law) of international jurisprudence, and have been doing so since the first border negotiations were began in 1868, a couple of years after the Spanish were booted out. They always kept kicking the can down the road in the hopes that their landless peasants would move the border further east to the lakes area, and the tactic partially paid off. We Domis are lucky that the current line was negotiated pre-WWII, when the USDOS was more partial to us, cuz otherwise we would have gotten an even shorter end of the stick, even though there is near parity between the size of both nations at the moment.
 
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mountainannie

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Naked Snake - I do encourage really to write to Edwidge. She and I were both long time participants in a list serve run by Michele Wucker ( author of "Where the Cocks " fight) and she might perhaps remember my name - Elizabeth Eames Roebling - I have also been a long time participant on an English Haiti list serve and have had personal correspondence with her over time. I think it important that there be respectful communication between Dominicans and Haitians - and certainly American English would be a good start! I would emphasis RESPECTFUL with the admonition that you read her complete biography if not her books - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edwidge_Danticat
 
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NanSanPedro

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I meant to write:"Haiti was given to Satan" - that is what Pat Robertson preaches on his prominent Christian network here...
..."But Pat Robertson, the Christian televangelist, has a different explanation guaranteed to scandalize untold numbers. On the "700 Club" he said Haitians made a pact with the devil to be freed from their French colonizers in the 18th Century.

So, as far as Robertson is concerned, the fault is not in the ground; it's in the Haitians."...
Yes, I heard the same thing repeated many times.
 
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mountainannie

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Yes, I heard the same thing repeated many times.
My dearest Haitian friend (I am Godmother to her son) says it this way - "Haitians are 80% Catholic, 20% Protestant, 100% Voudousants".

The Protestant Evangelicals ,who are the primary missionaries in Haiti, are generally not accepting of other religions.

The Roman Catholics conquered Latin America by simply overlaying the faces of their saints onto any existing gods that they found. In the DR, there is still a strong strain of Santeria. The Dominican government, which I believe still has a Concordat with the Roman Catholic Church (?), makes a great effort to repress the Rada - only really letting it fully onto the streets on Fat Tuesday. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dominican_Vudú.

I met a couple of young Americans who were teaching at a Protestant school up near Jarabacoa and they expressed a certain dismay that those who were running the place seemed intent on converting Catholics to Protestants as if the former were not, in fact, Christians at all.
 

mountainannie

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The Yanks from the USDOS at the time (Sumner Welles et. al.) the only thing they did was to make solid the line that was drawn by force of arms during the armistice/truce of 1856, resulting from Soulouque's last invasion attempt being repelled, but this country failing to liberate the towns in the Central Plateau he took on the attempt.
Dandicat speaks of the lines drawn in 1929. Are you on the same page?
 

mountainannie

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Oh! It is sooo like old times for me here on DR1 ! Being sucked into a discussion on line with folks I have never met in person but feel as if I really know! I could spend all day on the keyboard here with you - as I did many a day- back in the day.
I REALLY miss the DR. I keep planning and saving up for a trip back there when all this quarantine is over and I can go back to LT and see my friends and the whales. Maybe even have enough $$ to rent a Villa and invite up my friends from the Capital who would NEVER have enough $$ to spend even a Weekend in LT!!
Such thoughts are dreams made of.
STAY WELL!
 

carlos

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Oh! It is sooo like old times for me here on DR1 ! Being sucked into a discussion on line with folks I have never met in person but feel as if I really know! I could spend all day on the keyboard here with you - as I did many a day- back in the day.
I REALLY miss the DR. I keep planning and saving up for a trip back there when all this quarantine is over and I can go back to LT and see my friends and the whales. Maybe even have enough $$ to rent a Villa and invite up my friends from the Capital who would NEVER have enough $$ to spend even a Weekend in LT!!
Such thoughts are dreams made of.
STAY WELL!
It’s like you never left..keep posting.

:)